Overview Noticed that your foot is getting flatter and more painful? Do you have difficulty walking or performing exercise activity without leg and arch pain? Have you heard the term "fallen arches"? All of these things refer to a condition known as posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. This is an inflammation and overuse syndrome of one of the long tendons that pass from the leg around the inside of the ankle and attaches to the inside arch of the foot. The posterior tibial tendon?s job is to help support the arch and allow for more efficient gait. Causes There are numerous causes of acquired adult flatfoot, including fracture or dislocation, tendon laceration, tarsal coalition, arthritis, neuroarthropathy, neurologic weakness, and iatrogenic causes. The most common cause of acquired adult flatfoot is posterior tibial tendon dysfunction. Symptoms Pain along the inside of the foot and ankle, where the tendon lies. This may or may not be associated with swelling in the area. Pain that is worse with activity. High-intensity or high-impact activities, such as running, can be very difficult. Some patients can have trouble walking or standing for a long time. Pain on the outside of the ankle. When the foot collapses, the heel bone may shift to a new position outwards. This can put pressure on the outside ankle bone. The same type of pain is found in arthritis in the back of the foot. Asymmetrical collapsing of the medial arch on the affected side. Diagnosis The diagnosis of tibialis posterior dysfunction is essentially clinical. However, plain radiographs of the foot and ankle are useful for assessing the degree of deformity and to confirm the presence or absence of degenerative changes in the subtalar and ankle articulations. The radiographs are also useful to exclude other causes of an acquired flatfoot deformity. The most useful radiographs are bilateral anteroposterior and lateral radiographs of the foot and a mortise (true anteroposterior) view of the ankle. All radiographs should be done with the patient standing. In most cases we see no role for magnetic resonance imaging or ultrasonography, as the diagnosis can be made clinically. Non surgical Treatment Stage one deformities usually respond to conservative or non-surgical therapy such as anti-inflammatory medication, casting, functional orthotics or a foot ankle orthosis called a Richie Brace. If these modalities are unsuccessful surgery is warranted. Surgical Treatment Types of surgery your orthopaedist may discuss with you include arthrodesis, or welding (fusing) one or more of the bones in the foot/ankle together. Osteotomy, or cutting and reshaping a bone to correct alignment. Excision, or removing a bone or bone spur. Synovectomy, or cleaning the sheath covering a tendon. Tendon transfer, or using a piece of one tendon to lengthen or replace another. Having flat feet is a serious matter. If you are experiencing foot pain and think it may be related to flat feet, talk to your orthopaedist.